The role of social enterprise hybrid business models inclusive value chain development

Bob Doherty, Pichawadee (Gate) Kittipanya-ngam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study contributes to the growing interest in hybrid organisations, sustainable business models and inclusive value chain development (IVCD). Recent work has identified that of some 570 million farmers in the world, more than 475 million farmers are smallholders in low-middle-income countries experiencing increasing food insecurity and rural poverty. Research argues that there is a lack of research that provides work on appropriate solutions for smallholders. This paper answers this call by a qualitative study of ten case studies, which draws on hybrid organising, sustainable business model and IVCD research to identify the novel business model characteristics that hybrid organisations use to create and manage more inclusive value chains for smallholders. These hybrid organisations are designed to create a value proposition that delivers sustainability upgrading for smallholders via both product, process and governance upgrades, empowers smallholders to achieve development goals and creates multiple value for social impact. We therefore identify the important characteristics of the hybrid business model to provide appropriate solutions for smallholders and overcome the challenges identified in the inclusive value chain development literature
Original languageEnglish
Article number499
Number of pages24
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

©2021 by the authors.


  • Social Enterprise
  • Hybrid organisations
  • inclusive Value Chains

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