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The Thickness of Musical Pitch: Psychophysical Evidence for Linguistic Relativity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Published copy (DOI)


  • Sarah Dolscheid
  • Shakila Shayan
  • Asifa Majid
  • Daniel Casasanto


Publication details

JournalPsychological Science
DatePublished - 1 Jan 2013
Issue number5
Number of pages9
Pages (from-to)613-621
Original languageEnglish


Do people who speak different languages think differently, even when they are not using language? To find out, we used nonlinguistic psychophysical tasks to compare mental representations of musical pitch in native speakers of Dutch and Farsi. Dutch speakers describe pitches as high (hoog) or low (laag), whereas Farsi speakers describe pitches as thin (na-zok) or thick (koloft). Differences in language were reflected in differences in performance on two pitch-reproduction tasks, even though the tasks used simple, nonlinguistic stimuli and responses. To test whether experience using language influences mental representations of pitch, we trained native Dutch speakers to describe pitch in terms of thickness, as Farsi speakers do. After the training, Dutch speakers' performance on a nonlinguistic psychophysical task resembled the performance of native Farsi speakers. People who use different linguistic space-pitch metaphors also think about pitch differently. Language can play a causal role in shaping nonlinguistic representations of musical pitch.

    Research areas

  • cross-cultural differences, language, metaphor, music, musical pitch, psychophysics, space, Whorfian hypothesis

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