By the same authors

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The use of constructed wetlands to upgrade treated sewage effluents before discharge to natural surface water in Texel Island, The Netherlands: Pilot study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • M Schreijer
  • R Kampf
  • S Toet
  • J Verhoeven


Publication details

JournalWater science and technology
DatePublished - 1997
Issue number5
Number of pages7
Pages (from-to)231-237
Original languageEnglish


Since 1988 experiments have been carried out on a pilot scale on polishing of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent in a constructed wetland system, a combination of a macrophyte bed and a lagoon. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) has been between one and ten days. At HRTs of 2-3 days a favourable oxygen regime and a high degree of removal of E. coli bacteria could be obtained. The natural alternation of low and high oxygen levels resulted in an extra nitrogen removal from the low levels of nitrogen in the effluent of the STP. Phosphorus removal in the wetland system under these conditions was low, therefore chemical precipitation has to take place in the STP.

The favourable results of the study have led to the construction of a full scale 3.5 ha wetland system for the treatment of 3500 m(3) effluent day(-1) in 1994. The HRT is 2.1 days at dry weather flow. The purpose of this wetland is to further polish the STP effluent in order to match the water quality of the natural local surface waters. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

    Research areas

  • constructed wetland, coli removal, epiphyton biomass production, oxygen dynamics, nutrient removal, DECOMPOSITION

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