Tobacco smoking and associated factors among people living with HIV in Uganda

Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Fredrick Makumbi, Ronald Ssenyonga, Frances Thirlway, Joseph Matovu, Elena Ratschen, Kamran Siddiqi, Kellen Nyamurungi Namusisi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: This study aimed to assess smoking patterns, behaviours and
associated factors among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Uganda.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults in HIV care in
Uganda. Descriptive statistics were used to describe smoking patterns and
behaviours. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with current smoking status.

Results: We recruited 777 participants between October and November 2019: 387
(49.8%) current smokers and 390 (50.2%) non-smokers. 60.9% were males, and the mean age was 40.5 (SD 10.7) years. In multivariate logistic regression, the following increased the odds of being a current smoker: being male (OR 6.60 (95%CI= 4.34 to 10.04)), having at least two smokers among five closest friends (OR 3.97 (95%CI=2.08 to 7.59)), living in smoking-permitted households (OR 5.83 (95%CI= 3.32 to 10.23)), alcohol use (OR 3.96 (95%CI= 2.34 to 6.71)), a higher perceived stress score (OR 2.23 (95%CI= 1.50 to 3.34)), and higher health-related quality of life (OR 5.25 (95%CI= 1.18 to 23.35)). Among smokers, the mean Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score was 3.0 (SD 1.9), and 52.5% were making plans to quit. Self-efficacy to resist smoking and knowledge of the impact of smoking on PLWH’s health were low.

Conclusions: Being male, having at least two smokers among five closest friends,
living in smoking-permitted households, alcohol use, higher perceived stress scores and higher health-related quality of life were associated with being a current smoker. Smokers had low to moderate nicotine dependence, high willingness to quit, and low self-efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1208-1216
Number of pages9
JournalNicotine and tobacco research
Early online date9 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

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© The Author(s) 2020

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