Projects per year
and 18 g·kg-1 39 Pd. To advance this technology, species suitable for in-the-field application: mustard, miscanthus and sixteen willow species and cultivars, were tested. These species were able to grow, and take up, palladium from both synthetic and mine-sourced tailings. Although levels of palladium accumulation in field-suitable species are below that required for commercially available 3% palladium-on-carbon catalysts, this study both sets the target, and is a step towards, the development of field-suitable species that concentrate catalytically-
45 active levels of palladium. Life cycle assessment on the phytomining approaches described here indicates that the use of plants to accumulate palladium for industrial applications has the potential to decrease the overall environmental impacts associated with extracting palladium using present-day mining processes.