By the same authors

Uncertainty Quantification and Runtime Monitoring Using Environment-Aware Digital Twins

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Published copy (DOI)


  • Jim Woodcock
  • Cláudio Gomes
  • Hugo Daniel Macedo
  • Peter Gorm Larsen


Publication details

Title of host publicationLeveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation
DatePublished - 5 Aug 2021
Number of pages16
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
EditorsTiziana Margaria, Bernhard Steffen
Original languageEnglish
ISBN (Print)9783030837228

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12479 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


A digital twin for a Cyber-Physical System includes a simulation model that predicts how a physical system should behave. We show how to quantify and characterise violation events for a given safety property for the physical system. The analysis uses the digital twin to inform a runtime monitor that checks whether the noise and violations observed fall within expected statistical distributions. The results allow engineers to determine the best system configuration through what-if analysis. We illustrate our approach with a case study of an agricultural vehicle.

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the European Union for funding the INTO-CPS project (Grant Agreement 644047), which developed the open tool chain and the INTO-CPS Application; the Poul Due Jensen Foundation that funded subsequent work on taking this forward towards the engineering of digital twins; and the European Union for funding the HUBCAP project (Grant Agreement 872698). We acknowledge support from the UK EPSRC for funding for the RoboCalc (EP/M025756/1) and RoboTest projects (EP/R025479/1). Finally, we acknowledge support from the Royal Society and National Natural Science Foundation of China for funding for the project Requirements Modelling for Cyber-Physical Systems IEC/NSFC/170319. Early versions of the ideas in this paper were presented to the Digital Twin Centre in Aarhus in December 2019 (twice) and to the RoboStar team in York in January 2020. We are grateful for their feedback.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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