In November 2020, a meeting was held to explore what citizen science practitioners can gain from understanding engagement, marketing, and volunteer motivations in order to benefit recruitment and retention in environmental citizen science. This report summarises the lessons learned from considering the role of people as participants within citizen science; although we note that this is only one and, for some, a contested view of participants. Marketing and motivation studies highlighted the importance of knowing more about participants. Framing and user experience experts showed how to convert knowledge into tailored approaches that enhance engagement and retention. Other fields, including the world of commerce, have potential lessons for citizen science practitioners, especially those involved in top-down, mass participatory projects that require high levels of engagement.
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