By the same authors

Using Pairwise Randomisation to Reduce the Risk of Bias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Full text download(s)

Published copy (DOI)



Publication details

JournalResearch Methods in Medicine & Health Sciences
DateAccepted/In press - 18 Oct 2019
DatePublished (current) - 4 Nov 2019
Original languageEnglish


To describe the roles that pairwise randomisation has to prevent selection bias and allow a common outcome measurement point when timing of treatment is uncertain.

Study design and setting
A theoretical paper discussing situations where pairwise randomisation might be an appropriate method of allocation.

When recruitment of participants allows two or more randomisations to occur simultaneously then pairwise randomisation allows site stratification but prevents site predictability. For evaluations of treatments where timing of treatment is uncertain (e.g., elective surgery) pairwise randomisation allows a common post treatment evaluation time point. In waiting list designs where length of treatment varies by patient, pairwise randomisation allows differential follow-up across pairs.

Since pairwise randomisation was described in 2004, to allow unpredictable site stratification, it has been rarely used. However, it can address other methodological issues and should be considered more widely.

Bibliographical note

This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.

Discover related content

Find related publications, people, projects, datasets and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations