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Valorisation strategies for cocoa pod husk and its fractions

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Published copy (DOI)


  • Fei Lu
  • Julia Rodriguez-Garcia
  • Isabella Van Damme
  • Nicholas J. Westwood
  • Liz Shaw
  • James S. Robinson
  • Geoff Warren
  • Afroditi Chatzifragkou
  • Simon McQueen Mason
  • Leonardo Gomez
  • Laura Faas
  • Kelvin Balcombe
  • Chittur Srinivasan
  • Fiorella Picchioni
  • Paul Hadley
  • Dimitris Charalampopoulos


Publication details

JournalCurrent Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry
DateAccepted/In press - 23 Jul 2018
DateE-pub ahead of print - 29 Jul 2018
DatePublished (current) - 1 Dec 2018
Number of pages9
Pages (from-to)80-88
Early online date29/07/18
Original languageEnglish


Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is the main by-product (ca. 70–75% weight of whole fruit) of the cocoa harvest, an important and economic crop in developing countries. It is a rich source of minerals (particularly potassium), fibre (including lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) and antioxidants (e.g. phenolic acids). An existing practise is the return of CPH to soil with potential benefits (or disadvantages) for cocoa productivity and soil sustainability that have not been fully characterised. Currently, alternative low-value applications of CPH include its use as animal feed, as a starting material for soap making and activated carbon. Other biotechnological valorisation potentials for CPH and its fractions include the production of bio-fuels and their incorporation in food systems. Physical, chemical or biological pre-treatment approaches are needed in order to achieve desirable fractions in a cost-effective and sustainable manner for novel applications in food and non-food sectors.

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