Discover related content

Find related publications, people, projects, datasets and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Dr. Julian Francis Miller

(Former)

  1. Article › Research › Peer-reviewed
  2. Fast learning neural networks using Cartesian genetic programming

    Khan, M. M., Ahmad, A. M., Khan, G. M. & Miller, J. F., 9 Dec 2013

    Article in Neurocomputing

  3. Guidelines - From artificial evolution to computational evolution: a research agenda

    Banzhaf, W., Beslon, G., Christensen, S., Foster, J. A., Képès, F., Lefort, V., Miller, J. F., Radman, M. & Ramsden, J. J., Sep 2006

    Article in Nature Reviews Genetics

  4. Editorial › Research › Peer-reviewed
  5. Book › Research
  6. Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Miller, J. F. (ed.), 17 Sep 2011, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. 344 p. (Natural Computing)

    Research output: Book/ReportBook

  7. Paper › Research › Not peer-reviewed
  8. RBN-World: A Sub-symbolic Artificial Chemistry

    Faulconbridge, A., Stepney, S., Miller, J. F. & Caves, L. S. D., 2009, p. 377-384.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  9. Paper › Research › Peer-reviewed
  10. A Developmental Gene Regulation Network for Constructing Electronic Circuits

    Zhan, S., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 2008, p. 177-188. 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  11. A Model for Intrinsic Artificial Development Featuring Structural Feedback and Emergent Growth

    Trefzer, M. A., Kuyucu, T., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., May 2009, p. 301-308. 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  12. An Evolutionary System using Development and Artificial Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Zhan, S., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., Jun 2008, p. 815-822. 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  13. Evolution and Analysis of a Robot Controller Based on a Gene Regulatory Network

    Trefzer, M. A., Kuyucu, T., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A., Sep 2010, p. 61-72. 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  14. Image Compression of Natural Images using Artificial Gene Regulatory Networks

    Trefzer, M. A., Kuyucu, T., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A., 2010.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  15. Obtaining System Robustness by Mimicking Natural Mechanisms

    Zhan, S., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 2009, p. 3032-3039. 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  16. RBN-World: The hunt for a rich AChem

    Faulconbridge, A., Stepney, S. & Miller, J. F., 2010, p. 261--268.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  17. Reservoir Computing in materio with LEDs

    Dale, M. N., Miller, J. F., Stepney, S. & Trefzer, M. A., 2017.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  18. Semantic Bias in Program Coevolution

    Seaton, T. A., Miller, J. F. & Clarke, T., 2 Apr 2013, p. 193-204.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  19. Task Decomposition and Evolvability in Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    Kuyucu, T., Trefzer, M. A., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., May 2009, p. 2281-2287. 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  20. The Input Pattern Order Problem: Evolution of Combinatorial and Sequential Circuits in Hardware

    Trefzer, M., Kuyucu, T., Greensted, A., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., Sep 2008, p. 382-391. 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  21. Poster › Research › Peer-reviewed
  22. Other › Research › Not peer-reviewed
  23. A Biological Development Model for the Design of Robust Multiplier

    Liu, H., Miller, J. & Tyrrell, A., 1 Mar 2005, p. 195-204.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  24. A Developmental Method for Growing Graphs and Circuits

    Miller, J. F. & Thomson, P., 1 Mar 2003, p. 93-104.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  25. A Multi-chromosome Approach to Standard and Embedded Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A., Miller, J. F. & Cavill, R., 2006, p. 903-910.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  26. A New Crossover Technique for Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Clegg, J., Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 1 Jul 2007.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  27. A Tone Discriminator in Liquid Crystal

    Harding, S. L. & Miller, J. F., 1 Jun 2004, p. 1800-1807.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  28. Adaptivity in Cell Based Optimization for Information Ecosystems

    Rothermich, J., Wang, F. & Miller, J. F., 2003, p. 490-497.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  29. An Intrinsic Robust Transient Fault-Tolerant Development Model for Digital Systems

    Liu, H., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 1 Jun 2004.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  30. Beyond the Complexity Ceiling: Evolution, Emergence and Regeneration

    Miller, J. F. & Thomson, P., 2004.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  31. Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Miller, J. F. & Harding, S. L., 2008.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  32. Changing the Genospace: Solving GA Problems using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2007, p. 261-270.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  33. Coevolution of Intelligent Agents using Cartesian GeneticProgramming

    Khan, G. M., Halliday, D. M. & Miller, J. F., 2007, p. 269-276.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  34. Emergent Instinctive Behaviour in Evolved Neuro-inspired Agents.

    Khan, G. M., Halliday, D. M. & Miller, J. F., 1 Oct 2008.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  35. Evolution and Acquisition of Modules in Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 1 Apr 2004, p. 187-197.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  36. Evolution in Materio: Investigating the Stability of Robot Controllers Evolved in Liquid Crystal

    Harding, S. & Miller, J. F., 2005, p. 155-164.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  37. Evolution in Materio: A Real-Time Robot Controller in Liquid Crystal

    Harding, S. & Miller, J. F., 1 Jun 2005, p. 229-238.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  38. Evolution in materio

    Miller, J. F., 2008.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  39. Evolution of Robot Controller Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Harding, S. & Miller, J., 2005.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  40. Evolving a self-repairing, self-regulating, French flag organism

    Miller, D. J. F., 1 Jun 2004, p. 129-139.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  41. Evolving developmental programs for adaptation, morphogenesis, and self-repair

    Miller, J. F., 1 Sep 2003, p. 256-265.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  42. Fault Tolerant Control Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Hirayama, Y., Clarke, T. & Miller, J. F., 2008, p. 1523-1530.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  43. Intrinsic evolvable hardware implementation of a robust biological development model for digital systems

    Liu, H., Miller, J. & Tyrrell, A., 1 Jun 2005, p. 87-92.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  44. Investigating the Performance of Module Acquisition in Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2005, p. 1649-1656.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  45. Predicting Prime Numbers using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2007, p. 205-216.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  46. Quantum Search Algorithm with more Reliable Behaviour using Partial Diffusion

    Younes, A., Miller, J. F. & Rowe, J., 2004.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  47. Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Harding, S. L., Miller, J. F. & Banzhaf, W., 2007, p. 1021-1028.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

  48. Chapter › Research
  49. Cartesian Genetic Programming and the Post Docking Filtering problem

    Garmendia-Doval, A. B., Miller, J. F. & Morley, S. D., 2004, Genetic programming Theory and Practice. University of Michigan, Illinois, USA, 1 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  50. Evolving the Program for a Cell: From French Flags to Boolean Circuits

    Miller, J. F. M. & Banzhaf, W., 2003, On Growth, Form and Computers. Kumar, S. & Bentley, P. (eds.). Elsevier Academic Press, 1 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  51. Intelligent agents capable of developing memory of their environment.

    Khan, GM., Miller, JF. & Halliday, DM., 2009, Advances in Modeling Adaptive and Cognitive Systems . e-book available from: http://www2.uefs.br/graco/amacs/, 1 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  52. Medical Applications of Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Smith, S. L., Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2011, Cartesian Genetic Programming. Springer

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  53. Reservoir Computing as a model for in materio computing

    Dale, M. N., Miller, J. F. & Stepney, S., 2017, Advances in Unconventional Computing. Adamatsky, A. (ed.). Springer, Vol. 1. p. 533-571

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  54. Smoothness, Ruggedness and Neutrality of Fitness Landscapes: from Theory to Application

    Vassilev, V. K., Fogarty, T. C. & Miller, J. F., 2003, Advances in Evolutiuonary Computing: Theory and Application. Springer-Verlag, London, 1 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  55. The Genetic Algorithm as a Discovery Engine: Strange Circuits and New Principles

    Miller, J. F., Kalganova, T., Lipnitskaya, N. & Job, D., 2001, Creative Evolutionary Systems. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  56. The challenge of complexity

    Banzhaf, W. & Miller, J. F., 2004, Frontiers of Evolutionary Computation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  57. Conference contribution › Research
  58. A New Crossover Technique for Cartesian Genetic Programming Genetic Programming Track

    Clegg, J., Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2007, GECCO 2007: GENETIC AND EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION CONFERENCE, VOL 1 AND 2. NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, p. 1580-1587 8 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  59. A Scalable Solution to N-bit Parity via Artificial Development

    Kuyucu, T., Trefzer, M. A., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 2009, PRIME: PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE 2009 PHD RESEARCH IN MICROELECTRONICS AND ELECTRONICS. NEW YORK: IEEE, p. 144-147 4 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  60. A biological development model for the design of robust multiplier

    Liu, H., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 2005, APPLICATIONS OF EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS. Rothlauf, F., Branke, J., Cagnoni, S., Corne, DW., Drechsler, R., Jin, Y., Machado, P., Marchiori, E., Romero, J., Smith, GD. & Squillero, G. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 195-204 10 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  61. A scalable platform for intrinsic hardware and in materio evolution

    Harding, S. & Miller, J. F., 2003, 2003 NASA/DOD CONFERENCE ON EVOLVABLE HARDWARE. LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, p. 221-224 4 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  62. Breaking the Synaptic Dogma: Evolving a Neuro-inspired Developmental Network

    Khan, G. M., Miller, J. F. & Halliday, D. M., 2008, SIMULATED EVOLUTION AND LEARNING, PROCEEDINGS. Li, X., Kirley, M., Zhang, M., Green, D., Ciesielski, V., Abbass, H., Michalewicz, Z., Hendtlass, T., Deb, K., Tan, KC., Branke, J. & Shi, Y. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Vol. 5361 LNAI. p. 11-20 10 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  63. Changing the genospace: Solving GA problems with Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2007, Genetic Programming, Proceedings. ONeill, M., Ekart, A., Vanneschi, L. & EsparciaAlcazar, AI. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 261-270 10 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  64. Coevolution of Intelligent Agents using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Khan, G. M., Miller, J. F. & Halliday, D. M., 2007, GECCO 2007: GENETIC AND EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION CONFERENCE, VOL 1 AND 2. NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, p. 269-276 8 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  65. Evolution and acquisition of modules in Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2004, GENETIC PROGRAMMING, PROCEEDINGS. Keijzer, M., OReilly, UM., Lucas, SM., Costa, E. & Soule, T. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 187-197 11 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  66. Evolution and development - the perfect partnership?

    Liu, H., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 2005, WMSCI 2005: 9th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Vol 3. Callaos, N. & Lesso, W. (eds.). ORLANDO: INT INST INFORMATICS & SYSTEMICS, p. 154-159 6 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  67. Evolution in materio : A real-time robot controller in liquid crystal

    Harding, S. & Miller, J. F., 2005, 2005 Nasa/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware (EH-2005), Proceedings. Lohn, J., Gwaltney, D., Hornby, G., Zebulum, R., Keymeulen, D. & Stoica, A. (eds.). LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, p. 229-238 10 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  68. Evolution in materio: A tone discriminator in liquid crystal

    Harding, S. & Miller, J. F., 2004, CEC2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2004 CONGRESS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION, VOLS 1 AND 2. NEW YORK: IEEE, p. 1800-1807 8 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  69. Evolution in materio: Initial experiments with liquid crystal

    Harding, S. & Miller, J., 2004, 2004 NASA/DOD CONFERENCE ON EVOLVABLE HARDWARE, PROCEEDINGS. Zebulum, RS., Gwaltney, D., Hornby, G., Keymeulen, D., Lohn, F. & Stoica, A. (eds.). LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, p. 298-305 8 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  70. Evolution in materio: Investigating the stability of robot controllers evolved in liquid crystal

    Harding, S. & Miller, J. F., 2005, EVOLVABLE SYSTEMS: FROM BIOLOGY TO HARDWARE. Moreno, JM., Madrenas, J. & Cosp, J. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 155-164 10 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  71. Evolution of robot controller using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Harding, S. & Miller, J. F., 2005, GENETIC PROGRAMMING, PROCEEDINGS. Keijzer, M., Tettamanzi, A., Collet, P., Van Hemert, J. & Tomassini, M. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 62-73 12 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  72. Evolving Carbon Nanotube Reservoir Computers

    Dale, M. N., Miller, J. F., Stepney, S. & Trefzer, M. A., 15 Jun 2016, Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 15th International Conference, UCNC 2016, Manchester, UK, July 11-15, 2016, Proceedings. Amos, M. & Condon, A. (eds.). Springer, p. 49-61 13 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9726).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  73. Evolving a self-repairing, self-regulating, French flag organism

    Miller, J. F., 2004, GENETIC AND EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION - GECCO 2004, PT 1, PROCEEDINGS. Deb, K., Poli, R., Banzhaf, W., Beyer, HG., Burke, E., Darwen, P., Dasgupta, D., Floreano, D., Foster, O., Harman, M., Holland, O., Lanzi, PL., Spector, L., Tettamanzi, A., Thierens, D. & Tyrrell, A. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 129-139 11 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  74. Improving the evolvability of digital multipliers using embedded Cartesian genetic programming and product reduction

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2005, EVOLVABLE SYSTEMS: FROM BIOLOGY TO HARDWARE. Moreno, JM., Madrenas, J. & Cosp, J. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 131-142 12 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  75. Intrinsic evolvable hardware implementation of a robust biological development model for digital systems

    Liu, H., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 2005, 2005 Nasa/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware (EH-2005), Proceedings. Lohn, J., Gwaltney, D., Hornby, G., Zebulum, R., Keymeulen, D. & Stoica, A. (eds.). LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, p. 87-92 6 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  76. Investigating the performance of module acquisition in Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2005, GECCO 2005: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, Vols 1 and 2. Beyer, HG. (ed.). NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, p. 1649-1656 8 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  77. Iterative Cartesian Genetic Programming: Creating general algorithms for solving Travelling Salesman Problems

    Ryser-Welch, P., Miller, J. F., Swan, J. & Trefzer, M. A., 1 Jun 2016, EuroGP 2016: Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Genetic Programming. Heywood, M. I., McDermott, J., Castelli, M., Costa, E. & Sim, K. (eds.). Porto, Portugal: Springer-Verlag, Vol. 9594. p. 294-310 17 p. (LNCS).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  78. Multiple Network CGP for the Classification of Mammograms

    Voelk, K., Miller, J. F. & Smith, S. L., 2009, APPLICATIONS OF EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS. Giacobini, M., Brabazon, A., Cagnoni, S., DiCaro, GA., Ekart, A., EsparciaAlcazar, AI., Farooq, M., Fink, A., Machado, P., McCormack, J., ONeill, M., Neri, F., Preuss, M., Rothlauf, F., Tarantino, E. & Yang, S. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Vol. 5484 LNCS. p. 405-413 9 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  79. Practical issues for configuring carbon nanotube composite materials for computation

    Clegg, K. D., Miller, J. F., Massey, K. & Petty, M., 2014, 2014 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence: IEEE International Conference on Evolvable Systems - Proceedings. IEEE, p. 61 - 68 8 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  80. Predicting prime numbers using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2007, Genetic Programming, Proceedings. ONeill, M., Ekart, A., Vanneschi, L. & EsparciaAlcazar, AI. (eds.). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, p. 205-216 12 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  81. Solving Real-valued Optimisation Problems using Cartesian Genetic Programming Genetic Programming Track

    Walker, J. A. & Miller, J. F., 2007, GECCO 2007: GENETIC AND EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION CONFERENCE, VOL 1 AND 2. NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, p. 1724-1730 7 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  82. The Input Pattern Order Problem II: Evolution of Multiple-Output Circuits in Hardware

    Trefzer, M. A., Kuyucu, T., Miller, J. F. & Tyrrell, A. M., 2009, 2009 IEEE WORKSHOP ON EVOLVABLE AND ADAPTIVE HARDWARE: (WEAH). NEW YORK: IEEE, p. 32-38 7 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  83. Travelling Salesman Problem Solved ‘in materio’ by Evolved Carbon Nanotube Device

    Clegg, K. D., Miller, J. F., Massey, K. & Petty, M., 2014, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XIII: 13th International Conference, Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 13-17, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Vol. 8672. p. 692-701 10 p. 8672. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8672).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  84. Other chapter contribution › Research
  85. The Importance of Topology Evolution in NeuroEvolution: A Case Study Using Cartesian Genetic Programming of Artificial Neural Networks

    Turner, A. J. & Miller, J. F., 2013, Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXX. Bramer, M. & Petridis, M. (eds.). Springer International Publishing, p. 213-226 14 p. (Incorporating Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XXI Proceedings of AI-2013, The Thirty-third SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingOther chapter contribution

  86. Working paper › Research
  87. Chapter (peer-reviewed) › Research › Peer-reviewed
  88. Reservoir Computing in Materio: An Evaluation of Configuration through Evolution

    Dale, M. N., Stepney, S., Miller, J. F. & Trefzer, M. A., 2016, IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI), 2016 . IEEE

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)